God the Father and the Holy Spirit

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<p>Saint Martin is depicted in accordance with traditional iconography, sharing his cloak with a beggar who has come out to meet him with other needy people. In the background we see several celebrations related to the Feast of Saint Martin in the Low Countries. This feast was banned by the Council of Trent because of the depravity of the celebrants, since it was when the first wine of the year was drunk. </p>
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<p>This panel functions as a canopy or baldachin, and depicts God the Father and the Holy Ghost.</p>
  
  
 
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<p><b>Saint Martin shares his cloak with a poor man</b></p>
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<p><b>Bernard van Orley as designer</b></p>
<p>In the foreground, <b>Saint Martin</b>, on horseback, shares his cloak with one of the beggars who has come to meet him. Saint Martin of Tours was born in Hungary in 316AD and died in 397AD in France. The most famous miracle associated with him took place during the cold winter of the year 337AD, when he found a beggar near the gates of the city of Amiens, shivering in the cold. Martin gave him half of his cloak, since the other half belonged to the Roman army in which he served. The following night, Christ appeared to him dressed in the half-cloak to thank him for his charity. This is the most commonly-depicted episode related to Saint Martin, although in this one he is dressed in fifteenth-century clothing. </p>
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<p>As with the “Christ of Mercy”, van Orley probably designed this panel. It is a theme he also repeated in oil paintings attributed to him. Here <b>God the Father</b> and the <b>Holy Ghost</b> triumphantly emerge from the clouds surrounded by <b>rings of cherubs and angels</b>.</p>
  
  
<p><b>Beggars and cripples</b></p>
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<p><b>Divine Justice and Mercy</b></p>
<p>In the tapestry, the <b>beggars and cripples</b> surrounding Saint Martin resemble those depicted in the paintings of the Flemish artist Pieter Brueghel, who also depicted <i>The Wine of Saint Martin’s Day</i>, when the feasts and wine-drinking took place in the city outskirts. This canvas of Brueghel the Elder has recently been acquired by the Museo del Prado. This painting by Bosch, which is now lost, could be a possible antecedent for Brueghel’s work.</p>
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<p>As with its companion panel, the theme of divine Justice and Mercy are underscored here. The message of divine Justice may also subtly refer to Margaret as the highest judicial authority in the Netherlands, these powers delegated to her by her nephew, Emperor Charles V. Margaret’s <i>Baldachin</i> may have been commissioned by the regent as a mirror for how she must rule, dispense justice and practice compassion for her subjects.</p>
  
  
<p><b>Saint Martin’s wine</b></p>
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<p><b>Margaret´s palace in Mechelen</b></p>
<p>On the feast day of Saint Martin, 11th November, Saint Martin’s goose was eaten and the first wine of the winter drunk, since it coincided with the end of the harvest and the distribution of wine in the town, especially in the Low Countries. The <b>banquet</b> scene inside the building which Saint Martin is emerging from could potentially allude to this festivity from the late Middle Ages. The barrel of wine occupies a prominent place and a crowd is piling up in the door to get to it. Because of the wine, these feasts, a prelude to Carnival, were riddled with excess, and consequently banned by the Council of Trent. On this occasion, the pernicious effects of the festivities can be seen in <b>the unconscious characters </b>and<b> those who are fighting beside the barrel</b>.</p>
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<p>This canopy is thought to have served as an awning for Margaret of Austria’s prie-dieu in the chapel of her palace in Mechelen. Although the original location of both the <i>Baldachin</i> and its complementary tapestries, the <i>Square Passion</i>, is not known. They possibly decorated the court chapel in the Malines palace. However, this building has undergone so many transformations over the centuries that a precise reconstruction has become impossible.</p>
  
  
<p><b>The wild boar hunt</b></p>
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<p><b>The Patrimony of Margaret of Austria</b></p>
<p>Another of the Flemish festivities depicted in Bosch’s lost paintings is taking place outside the building. We know that these lost paintings decorated the Alcázar of Madrid during Philip II’s reign, and one of them depicted the <b>blind men</b> hunting a <b>wild boar</b>. Here, in order to protect themselves from the animal, they are wearing sixteenth-century armour and attempting to bring down the boar with clubs, in front of a bustling group of spectators who are kept behind a wooden fence.</p>
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<p>In 1531 Charles V inherited the bulk of his aunt’s tapestry collection, including these three panels of the <i>Baldachin,</i> or <i>Dais of Charles V,</i> which remained in the tapestry wardrobe of the Coudenberg palace in Brussels. In 1555 Charles V used these same tapestries to form his dais and canopy at his abdication ceremony held in the same palace and in 1556 he brough the <i>Baldachin</i> to Spain where he retired. In 1568 they were inherited by his son Philip II, who displayed them as a dais and baldachin at the monastery of El Escorial. They were subsequently returned in 1593 to the tapestry wardobe of the Alcázar palace in Madrid.</p>
 
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<p><b>Mistaken for Saint Anthony</b></p>
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<p>For many years the iconography of this tapestry was associated with the tapestry of “Saint Anthony in prayer”, since it was believed to depict the moment when Saint Anthony abandoned his pleasant life in the city to become a hermit in the desert. </p>
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{{tabla1|
 
{{tabla1|
<p><b>Series</b> <i>Four tapestries after Hieronymus Bosch</i></p>
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<p><b>Series</b> <i>Dais of Charles V  (Baldachin of Margaret of Austria)</i></p>
<p>First tapestry in the series</p>
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<p>Tapestry baldachin of the dais</p>
<p><b>Model</b> Inspired by the work of Hieronymus Bosch</p>
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<p><b>Model</b> Bernard van Orley (1491-1542)</p>
<p><b>Manufacture</b> Unknown workshop, Brussels, before 1560</p>
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<p><b>Manufacture</b> Pieter de Pannemaker, Brussels, 1518-1524</p>
 
<p><b>Fabric</b> Gold, silver, silk and wool</p>
 
<p><b>Fabric</b> Gold, silver, silk and wool</p>
<p><b>Size</b> 296 x 364 cm</p>
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<p><b>Size</b> 210 x 210 cm</p>
 
<p><b>Location</b> Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial</p>
 
<p><b>Location</b> Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial</p>
<p><b>Origin</b> Collection of Caridinal Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle</p>
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<p><b>Origin</b> Collection of Margaret of Austria, later inherited by Charles V in 1530</p>
 
<p><b>On display</b> Halls of Honour</p>
 
<p><b>On display</b> Halls of Honour</p>
<p><b>National Heritage</b> Inv. n. 1005803</p>
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<p><b>National Heritage</b> Inv. n. 10034478</p>
 
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{{Pag-Anterior|Dais_of_Charles_V__(Baldachin_of_Margaret_of_Austria)}}
 
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{{Pag-Siguiente|Christ_of_Mercy}}
{{Pag-Anterior|Four_tapestries_after_Hieronymus_Bosch_(series)}}
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{{Pag-Siguiente|Saint_Anthony_in_prayer}}
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Latest revision as of 12:45, 23 December 2013

God the Father and the Holy Spirit

This panel functions as a canopy or baldachin, and depicts God the Father and the Holy Ghost.



Bernard van Orley as designer

As with the “Christ of Mercy”, van Orley probably designed this panel. It is a theme he also repeated in oil paintings attributed to him. Here God the Father and the Holy Ghost triumphantly emerge from the clouds surrounded by rings of cherubs and angels.


Divine Justice and Mercy

As with its companion panel, the theme of divine Justice and Mercy are underscored here. The message of divine Justice may also subtly refer to Margaret as the highest judicial authority in the Netherlands, these powers delegated to her by her nephew, Emperor Charles V. Margaret’s Baldachin may have been commissioned by the regent as a mirror for how she must rule, dispense justice and practice compassion for her subjects.


Margaret´s palace in Mechelen

This canopy is thought to have served as an awning for Margaret of Austria’s prie-dieu in the chapel of her palace in Mechelen. Although the original location of both the Baldachin and its complementary tapestries, the Square Passion, is not known. They possibly decorated the court chapel in the Malines palace. However, this building has undergone so many transformations over the centuries that a precise reconstruction has become impossible.


The Patrimony of Margaret of Austria

In 1531 Charles V inherited the bulk of his aunt’s tapestry collection, including these three panels of the Baldachin, or Dais of Charles V, which remained in the tapestry wardrobe of the Coudenberg palace in Brussels. In 1555 Charles V used these same tapestries to form his dais and canopy at his abdication ceremony held in the same palace and in 1556 he brough the Baldachin to Spain where he retired. In 1568 they were inherited by his son Philip II, who displayed them as a dais and baldachin at the monastery of El Escorial. They were subsequently returned in 1593 to the tapestry wardobe of the Alcázar palace in Madrid.


Series Dais of Charles V (Baldachin of Margaret of Austria)

Tapestry baldachin of the dais

Model Bernard van Orley (1491-1542)

Manufacture Pieter de Pannemaker, Brussels, 1518-1524

Fabric Gold, silver, silk and wool

Size 210 x 210 cm

Location Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial

Origin Collection of Margaret of Austria, later inherited by Charles V in 1530

On display Halls of Honour

National Heritage Inv. n. 10034478



AJG



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